Five Myths About Print Disabilities

As the school year comes to an end, preparations for a new school year are beginning.  As students transition to new classes and possibly even new schools, they may find that there are people that don’t know what a print disability is, and these people may struggle to create accessible materials or order special items.  It’s important to start the school year off right, so here I have compiled a list of five myths about print disabilities, and how to ensure students receive accessible materials

Myth 1- There’s no need for large print in math/science

While there are some print disabilities like dyslexia that only affect letters, most print disabilities affect letters and numbers in all subjects, as the font is too small to read.  There may be added difficulty with graphs, exponents, subscripts, maps, and even music.  Always have large print materials available for all subjects- this extends to textbooks as well.

Myth 2- Writing in all caps is the same as large print

DOES THIS LOOK ANY LARGER TO YOU?  Nope, didn’t think so.  Writing in all caps in a small font size is not the same as having large text.  There’s no need to write in all caps in large text either. Unless the rest of the class is getting everything in all caps, there is no reason for the student with a print disability to get everything written that way.

Myth 3- If you sit there long enough, inaccessible materials will become accessible

One day, I received a practice test that was in small print.  I walked up to the teacher and asked for large print, and they told me to sit there and try harder to see it.  After staring at it for an hour, the font didn’t magically enlarge or become clear so I could see it.  It’s also a bad idea to argue that the student doesn’t need large print, especially if they have an IEP.

Myth 4- Students should feel bad requesting large print 

At a band audition, I had trouble seeing the music that was provided for me.  The teacher on duty (not my teacher) informed me that I could throw everyone behind for 45 minutes so they could enlarge my music, or I could suck it up and play the music I couldn’t see.  This teacher knew exactly how to make me feel guilty for something I couldn’t control, so I just tried to guess what the music was- and looking at my extremely low score, I’m pretty sure my guess was very off.  Looking back, I should have made them enlarge it, as I deserved the same opportunities as the other people auditioning.  I don’t get any extra advantage with my large print.

Myth 5- If a student can use a cell phone, they don’t need large print

I actually have an entire post dedicated to this topic called “My Phone Isn’t Paper.”  Paper displays and digital displays are two different things, and students have found ways to be able to use technology using the accessibility settings.  After all, you can easily zoom in on a digital screen…the same can’t be said for a paper screen.
You have the right to see materials just like every other student, and your school is required to provide accessible materials for you if you have an IEP or 504.  Don’t let anyone tell you otherwise.

State Standardized Tests/ SOL Accommodations For Low Vision

Every state has their own form of standardized tests. In my home state of Virginia, we have the Standards of Learning exams, most commonly referred to as SOLs. At least one of these tests is administered a year, from third grade to twelfth grade, and students sometimes take up to four of these exams. While they technically don’t count for a grade, students need to pass a certain number of SOLs in order to advance in school or graduate. For the majority of the student population, the tests are administered online with fill in the blank, choose multiple answers, and multiple choice questions, in addition to exams where the student writes an essay. There’s only one problem with these digital exams- they can’t be enlarged.

Before the digital exams came out, everyone took exams on pencil and paper, but I had a special exam that was in large print. In third grade, my first year of taking the SOLs, the school forgot to place an order for all four of my exams, so when test day came, I didn’t have a test, so the school decided I would go sit in a classroom with first graders while the rest of the class took exams. When the tests showed up a week later, I had to take all of the tests in one day, as opposed to having one day to complete each test. Luckily, the test proctor gave me candy inbetween tests as a way to apologize for what was going on. Ordering tests early is extremely important, as if you have a student who uses large print in the classroom, they need it in the testing environment too.

In middle school, the tests converted to a digital format, and I was beyond excited for this. I couldn’t wait to be able to enlarge text and graphs how I needed them, and be able to work with computers, since I love technology. As I expressed my excitement, someone turned to me and said “oh, you can’t enlarge this. The magnification feature is locked to prevent cheating.” While this was before I knew a lot about assistive technology and accessibility, I still thought that made absolutely no sense. How is being able to see something clearly considered cheating?

I think a lot of the stigma about receiving a large print test started once the digital tests started being used. The large print test was printed on ridiculously large paper, since it took up three desks in size. The text was enlarged to size 20 point font, and at the time I also had accommodations to use pens and highlighters, while other students had to use pencils. One interesting thing is that while the rest of the class could use a calculator, I was not permitted to use one because they did not have one that I could see. Another fun fact about the test is that the ten field/test questions on the traditional exam are eliminated, as are the fill in the blank, true/false, pick multiple, and other free response question formats. I had less questions than everyone else, and the questions were multiple choice. One year, I had a teacher complain to the principal that I finished before everyone else, to which my family and I had to explain that I had ten less questions than everyone else, so naturally I would finish quicker. I also didn’t have to transfer my answers to a Scantron document, so that saved time as well.

I always managed to pass my SOLs until I took geometry. My geometry teacher was awesome, and probably one of the best math teachers I had in school because they understood how to create accessible materials. Unfortunately, the people who created the SOLs did not know how to create accessible materials, as my mom and I found out that graphs and other images were only enlarged to 113% (as of 2017, they are now enlarged 166%, but since I receive materials enlarged to around 250%, this still wouldn’t be large enough). I wound up failing the SOL because I had so much difficulty with the graphs and shapes, but I was eligible to retake the exam the next semester.

As a student with an increasing interest in assistive technology, I suggested that the test be broadcast on a projector in a classroom so I could work out the problem on the white board and then record my answer in the test booklet. It was easier than magnifying the test, as my eyes hurt whenever I used a magnifying glass, and I was not provided any other assistive technology like a CCTV. Because I had sensitivity to flashing lights as well as lights in general, I had to take the exam in a classroom that was almost completely dark, with my case manager as a proctor (who later told me they were worried about falling asleep while I took my exam). I wound up failing the exam on the second try as well, but only by two questions. Since I passed my algebra 2 SOL (using the same projector accommodations, and still without a calculator), and I only needed to pass two math SOLs to graduate, we decided not to worry about geometry anymore.

When I moved to a different high school junior year, I got the opportunity to finally use a calculator on my SOLs. I was recommended the myScript calculator app, which would be enabled in guided access mode so I couldn’t use the Internet or any other apps. This was extremely helpful, and I managed to do very well on my chemistry SOL because of it. I remember being very excited about this calculator, to which my guidance counselor asked if I wanted to try my geometry SOL again, and I said that I’d really rather not.

I graduated with an advanced diploma from Virginia public schools in 2015, meaning I had passed at least two English exams, two math exams, two science exams, two history exams, and another exam in one of those subjects. Since I have graduated, the E-Bot Pro, my favorite CCTV, has been approved for use with the SOL. Students can also apply for accommodations to use portable CCTVs such as the SmartLux or other video magnifiers on the exam. As I like to say, everyone has the right to see the same things as everyone else, and that applies to testing as well. I hope my experiences with the SOL can help other students with low vision taking standardized tests, and that they may be able to do better than I did.

If you have any specific questions about my SOL accommodations, feel free to comment below, as comments go directly to my email. I will do my best to respond.



Colored Paper and the Readability of Text

On my seventeenth birthday, I presented at a science fair affiliated with my school district about my research on how the color of paper can affect the readability of the text on the paper.  This was the first time I really investigated how important contrast is when creating accessible documents, and I was able to determine the colors of paper I preferred for my assignments.  When I presented this research to the science fair judges, I received an unexpected surprise- three out of the five judges were colorblind!  Globally, one in twelve men and one in two hundred women are colorblind, and the odds of encountering two men and one women who are colorblind in a room seemed to be one in a million.  My friends and family found this experience absolutely hilarious, and told me that it would be a great story to tell if I ever presented my research again, though I wasn’t very amused.

My interest in this topic began in 2013, when I visited a neuro-opthalmologist at a large medical center who showed me an eye chart with different colored backgrounds.  They explained that people tend to see better on the eye chart with colored backgrounds because the colors helped reduce eye fatigue (from the white glare of the normal eye chart) and it was easier for the eyes to focus.  I was fascinated by this, and chose to do more research on it for my science fair project.  Over the years, I have learned even more about creating accessible materials and how important contrast is, and will be sharing some of the practical applications of my research below.

What colors work best

Light yellow and light blue were found to be the paper colors that were the easiest to read off of.  It could easily be read in all lighting conditions, and the effectiveness of the colors weren’t diminished if someone wore tinted glasses (like I do).  I have found it is easy to read on these colors for long periods of time, and all colors of my pens and markers show up sharp even on the colored paper.  Blue is best for large amounts of information or reading, while yellow works great for worksheets.

What colors work less well

Neon bright colors, while they do stand out, often contribute to eye fatigue and the eyes may have trouble focusing on the page.  Darker colors, such as those found on conventional construction paper, may also be difficult to read.  The darker backgrounds obscure text and make information difficult to process.

Using colored films

While this wasn’t part of my project, one of my teachers found that I processed information much better when they added a colored film on top of the paper that they were projecting, or when I layered a colored film on top of what I was reading.  Because of the way fluorescent lighting was set up in some classrooms, I found these films difficult to use when the lights above me would reflect on top of the plastic, so I very rarely used them while sitting at my desk.  Now that I am in college though, and most of my classrooms don’t use fluorescent lighting, I have found myself reaching for these films more often when I have to read papers for long periods of time.

Changing white intensity

Since sharp white can be bad for eye fatigue, I have blue light filters on all of my main electronic devices, including my desktop computer, laptop computer, Android phone, and iPad.  I also have a post dedicated to reducing eyestrain with technology.

If I put it on a colored background, does this mean I don’t need large print?

NO!!  If you have low vision, please continue to use your preferred font sizes and image sizes, even if you use a colored paper.  The page color is supposed to make text easier to see, not to add any other difficulties.

Bottom line, the page color can influence the readability of font, and by using light colors, the reader may find it easier to read for long periods of time and not have as much eye fatigue from glare.  Experiment with different papers and figure out which one works best.

ACT Accommodations For Low Vision

Even though I took the SAT, it was recommended that I also take the ACT (plus writing) test, as colleges liked to see that students took both exams.  While getting my SAT accommodations for my print disability was fairly easy, since I had taken an AP exam in the past, getting my ACT accommodations was extremely stressful.

I was denied my initial request for large print, however was approved for triple time, and received notification about this eleven days prior to the test.  Following that, my mom and I contacted the ACT organization, who requested more documentation for my disability, so we sent them my IEP and certification of low vision from my opthalmologist.  We also got the school testing coordinator involved in the process.  Nine days after I was initially denied accommodations, and two days before the exam, I was approved for everything I needed.

Like my SAT, I took the test in a small group setting in a different classroom than the rest of the students.  We went to the school I would be testing at the day before my exam to fill out forms as well, so when I got there, they could immediately start my exam.  Since I had triple time on each section on the test, the sooner I started the exam, the sooner the exam would be over.  I had triple time for all of my sections, and while I was approved to take the exam over the course of several days, I chose to take it all in one day.

I received a large-text test booklet with 18-point Arial font, and the testing coordinator transferred the responses from my booklet to the answer document.  I was allowed to mark in my test booklet, and use my colored pens and highlighters for the test.  I had two desks that I used to spread out materials, and the lights were replaced with lamps in the testing room to reduce the risk of flickering fluorescent lights.  I took a break between each section, but never left the classroom.

I was approved to use the myScript calculator app on my iPad with guided access enabled, so I couldn’t access the internet or any other apps.  I also was permitted to use a magnifier and a blank 3 x 5 index card for tracking text.  The index card was especially helpful when tracking math and science text.  I was not allowed to use a computer for any section except for the writing section- I used Microsoft Word and had spell check and the internet disabled.

I received my scores about six weeks after everyone else, as is typical for most large print exams.  One thing I liked is that I was able to see how I did in individual sections, and it was relatively easy to send scores to the colleges I applied to.  Overall, I would recommend taking both the ACT and SAT tests, and filing for accommodations several weeks in advance, and submitting every piece of documentation you could possibly think of.


 

SAT Accommodations for Low Vision

I remember when I walked in to take my SAT.  The day before, my mom and I, along with the testing coordinator for the school I was taking the exam at, spent at least an hour filling out a variety of pretesting forms and filling out my information on what seemed like several dozen pieces of paper.  Keeping track of all those forms seemed to be more stressful than taking the exam.  When testing day came, the testing coordinator gathered all of the forms and signaled for my mom and I to come to the front of the line so I could be escorted to testing.  As my mom and I walked forward, a bunch of parents started yelling at us for cutting the line and seeming like we were more important than everyone else.  They started asking what was wrong with us as I was walking away with the testing coordinator.  To answer their question, there isn’t anything “wrong” with me, I was just a student who received accommodations for my vision impairment.

We filed for my accommodations at least twelve weeks in advance.  While I had taken an AP Exam in the past, the College Board had us resubmit my accommodations because we had to make some minor changes.  My accommodations were approved in a reasonable amount of time, and I didn’t have to worry about rescheduling.

I took my test in a small classroom where I was the only student, with at least two staff members present.  The overhead lights in the classroom were turned off and replaced with lamps to help with my light sensitivity.  I had a giant table to work on my test, and there were computers in the classroom for when it came time to type my essay.  I received short, frequent breaks to stretch my legs and walk around the classroom, since I was prone to leg spasms.

The test itself was in 22 point Arial font and came in a spiral-bound book on 8.5″ x 11″ paper.  The paper was thick so I didn’t have to worry about the colored Sharpie pens I used bleeding through and obstructing my view of answer choices.  Images were enlarged 250%, and math notation such as exponents were enlarged as well.

As for assistive technologies, I used my personal iPad with the app myScript calculator, a calculator that calculates equations that the student writes with their finger and that supports large print.  There were no graphing capabilities on this calculator.  Guided Access was enabled for the duration of the exam so that I could not access the internet or other apps during the test.  I also had access to Microsoft Word 2013 with the dictionary, encyclopedia, and internet functions disabled, for the essay portion of my exam.  The essay was printed after I finished typing.  If I could go back in time, I would have also used a CCTV device as an extra support during my exam for when I had trouble seeing smaller items.

I received time and a half on the exam, which was adequate for me.  I also did not fill out the bubble sheet for the exam, instead having a paraprofessional do it after I had completed testing and left the building.  It’s worth noting that I did not receive my scores at the same time as everyone else who tested on the same day as me- I believe I had to wait an additional 4-6 weeks, as is common with most standardized tests that are in an accessible format.

Below, I have outlined my official accommodations for the exam:

  • Large print, size 22 Arial point font
  • Graphics enlarged to 250%
  • Extended time- 150%
  • Use of pens on the exam
  • Word processing software
  • Extra/untimed breaks
  • Use of alternative calculator
  • Small group testing environment

Overall, taking my SAT exam went incredibly smoothly, and I was able to score very well and get into my top choice college, as well as my second choice.  I am grateful that it was a relatively stress-free experience in taking my exam…well, about as stress-free as taking a SAT can be.

Learning to Self-Advocate

On my IEP throughout high school, one of the top goals was for me to learn to self-advocate.  When I was younger, I viewed this goal as meaning that if I had a problem, it would mean that no one would be available to help me and I would be stuck with dealing with everything by myself.  That was not the case, as I had so many people to help support me.  I’ve learned a lot about self-advocacy, and I hope that I will be able to help others learn as well.

What is self-advocacy?

Self-advocacy is learning how to speak up for yourself, as well as learning, building a support network, problem solving, and knowing when to reach out for help. It’s an extremely important skill to have, as there may not always be someone with you when a situation comes up. This skill has greatly benefitted me outside of school, in college, and beyond.

Learning to speak up for yourself

I do not like causing conflict or hurting people’s feelings, so it was hard for me at first to point out that a situation was unfair or that my accommodations were not being followed. In one of my classes, the daily warm-up assignment was never enlarged, so instead of arguing with the teacher every day, I would walk into class and read a book on my eReader until the rest of the class finished with the assignment.

No one can hear you unless you speak up, so make sure to let the teacher know if assignments are presented in a format that is not accessible for you. Also make suggestions on how to make it accessible- enlarging exponents, using different colored pens and papers, digital formats, or anything else you can think of.

Learning

In college, I met another student with low vision that didn’t know anything about the services they received in school. They told me that their parents and teachers handled everything, and they couldn’t tell me what accommodations they received, just that they needed them.

Familiarize yourself with what accommodations you receive. What font size can you read? What color paper works best? What assistive technology do you use? What apps do you use, and on what platform? Do you receive extra time? Are tests in a one-on-one environment? Learning how to explain your accommodations simply and clearly is important.  This information will be very helpful when it comes time to create a Disability Services file in college.

Building a support network

With my IEP, I had three case managers in high school over the course of four years (I attended two high schools). They were specifically picked for me because they were great with helping students learn to self-advocate- they wouldn’t sit there and yell at my teachers over trivial things or constantly hover over me. Instead, they would step in when there was a problem I needed help with. My guidance counselors were also incredible resources, as they would listen and move me out of classes when necessary, as well as be some of my greatest advocates in IEP meetings. In addition, each of my high schools also had an assistant principal who would handle the cases for students with IEPs, and the principal was helpful as well. The central office of my school districts listened to my concerns when situations were too much to handle.

I also had family and friends to help me through smaller situations. My parents, especially my mom, would attend every IEP meeting and help make sure that I was thriving in the educational environment. My parents have always been very encouraging of my goals as well. In the classroom, I also had friends that would help me advocate for myself so I didn’t feel as nervous. In a class where the teacher regularly did not enlarge my work, one of my best friends was always right behind me whenever I went to ask the teacher for my assignments, so when the teacher started telling me that I didn’t need large print, I would feel more confident in reminding them that I do and I would be less likely to back away.

Problem solving

Learning to solve minor problems on your own can be extremely beneficial. I learned how to scan in and enlarge assignments, make documents accessible, and type my own notes when there were no prewritten notes available. This meant that I was still able to participate in class even if my IEP wasn’t completely followed, and it meant my grades were higher because I missed less assignments.

Some posts that may be helpful include my posts on testing accommodations, accommodations for print materials, and what I’ve learned about print disabilities.

Knowing when to reach out for help

In one of my math classes, I had a teacher who did not believe I needed large print, as they assumed my glasses corrected my vision to 100% and it was a waste of their time to enlarge things, despite the fact I had an IEP. I thought I could handle the situation myself, and didn’t tell anyone how badly I was struggling in the class. I didn’t use any assistive technology regularly at that time, so it should be no surprise that I failed the class.

As important as it is to try and handle situations yourself, you have a support network for a reason. It’s important to let someone else step in for situations that involve the law being broken, threats, or when you’ve tried everything you can think of. This isn’t failure to self-advocate though, as an important aspect is remembering when to get help.

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Self-advocacy is one of the skills that I am the most grateful for. Because of this, I have been able to go on to attend college, confident in myself and my abilities, but still knowing where I need extra help. I will always be grateful for the people and experiences that helped me develop this skill.

How Do People With Low Vision…Take Gym?

It should be no surprise, but I am not very good at sports, and if you throw a ball at me, there’s a very high chance I won’t catch it, or alternatively I will catch it with my face. Because of this, I needed accommodations in my gym classes, or took adaptive PE. Here is how I got through gym and health in the public schools I attended.

Elementary school

My first gym teacher was awesome about creating activities every student could participate in, and I never had to worry about being left out or being criticized for not being able to see. Our school received a new teacher my fifth grade year, and they used a curriculum that had a heavy emphasis on team sports. Instead of ask for accommodations, I just would strike out first so I could sit out for the rest of class. On the last day of fifth grade, I was hit directly in the eye with a volleyball, and the incident caused my family and I to rethink how I would take gym when I got to middle school.

Sixth grade

I had eye surgery that October, and needed to be exempt from gym before and for months after my eye surgery. Because of this, it wasn’t practical for me to take gym. Originally, the principal suggested that I take the health course with my class, and when they were in the gym, I could come to the main office of the school and file papers. My parents thought this was a terrible idea, especially because I have a print disability and can’t see to file. After I completed a county-mandated unit in the health class about gangs, I switched into elective classes. Instead of having two elective classes one day and gym the next day, I had two different elective classes each day- in my case, they were band, art, drama, and Latin.  No kids ever noticed that I didn’t take gym.

Seventh grade

Over the summer, my school installed what they called a fitness lab, which had exercise equipment. Students would spend three class periods there, three class periods in the gym, and three class periods in health. While I would often sit out in gym, I was able to participate in the other sections very easily. Something that helped tremendously was that our class was extremely small, with only about fifteen students (normal classes had thirty), and I had friends in the class.

Eighth grade

My teacher had to take a leave during the school year, so we had lots of different substitutes, most who weren’t familiar with vision loss. I also got prisms in my glasses, and moving quickly would give me vertigo. I had to sit out constantly, and because of this, I stopped changing clothes for PE, with my logic being that if I wasn’t going to do anything, why should I change clothes? Because of this logic, I received a D in PE, something my parents weren’t very happy about, but we didn’t fight the grade because it wouldn’t carry over to high school.

Ninth grade

An adjacent school district had a virtual physical education class that they offered in the summer months. Students would learn about the history of sports, health, and keep a fitness log. We had to fight for permission for me to take this class, but it was ultimately granted, and now other students are able to take it. This was also my first of what would be many virtual classes!

Tenth grade

I couldn’t take virtual PE again, or PE in the classroom, because it tied in with Driver’s Ed, a class that I definitely couldn’t be accommodated for. While doing research, my mom discovered there was an adaptive PE program in our school district. I previously was not referred because I briefly didn’t have an IEP in middle school, and my teacher didn’t believe that I qualified for adaptive PE without an IEP. I got a referral and then met with the adaptive PE instructor once or twice a week for a semester and would do exercises. I took the health component of the class through the Independent Study program at Brigham Young University (HLTH 042), a self paced online class. I only needed two PE/health credits in high school, and my college does not require a physical education class- though another friend with low vision who did need a physical education credit took rowing.

Someone asked me if I felt left out because I didn’t take PE like everyone else, and my answer is definitely not. I am still nervous about being around people playing sports today, and I have a feeling I would have many more stories about broken glasses had I taken PE. 

How To Survive Midterms/Finals

Midterms week is finally over, and I couldn’t be more happy about that. It’s been a long week of studying and taking tests, while trying to keep eye fatigue and migraines at bay. Here are some of my tips for surviving midterms and finals week. While this information can be helpful to any college student, I have specifically written it with students who have low vision or chronic illness in mind.

Use a tinted background for study materials.

White paper and screens can provide a lot of glare and cause eye fatigue. One way to lessen eye fatigue is to use tinted backgrounds in a shade such as gray, blue, or yellow to reduce eye fatigue. You can enable a colored tint on your Apple device using these instructions, use one of these free apps on a computer, or simply print study materials on colored paper.

Request notes online

Take terrible notes? You have options to receive quality notes at little to no cost. The best way, of course, is having an accommodation in your Disability Service file to request notes directly from the professor. There are also many websites where students upload their notes from a specific course- ask someone at your college which website most students use, or web search your college name and course name/number. These websites often will allow you to download notes at half price or even free if you have a Disability Services file. Also check with Disability Services to see if any of their student note takers have notes from your class.

Use digital flashcards

I love using the website Quizlet to create my own flashcards and review flashcards from other students in my classes. The quiz feature is also extremely helpful when testing material. I use Quizlet specifically because the animations do not cause vertigo or have strobing lights, something that is very critical for me, and the text can be enlarged easily.

Find a comfortable study location

Do not study in bed, no matter how comfortable it is, because if you are anything like me, you will fall asleep. However, that doesn’t mean you can’t be comfortable. I have this back support pillow at my desk chair and it helps keep my back spasms from acting up while I am studying for long periods of time. I’ve also been using this heated shoulder wrap every hour or so to keep my shoulders from tensing up.

Move around during breaks

I try to leave my study area when I am taking a study break. Usually I go for a walk around campus or go to the gym so I can sit in the hot tub for a few minutes and make sure my muscles don’t tense up. Try not to spend study break time staring at a screen, as this is an opportunity to rest your eyes.

Don’t try to study with a migraine

For those who get daily migraines like me, do not attempt to study while you have a migraine. It will just take longer to recover. Likewise, if you have an exam in twenty minutes and a pounding migraine, call and ask to reschedule, preferably for the same day. Migraines and exams do not mix.

Ensure accommodations are in place at the testing center

Also make sure that your test is actually in the possession of the testing center before test day- I have shown up to take tests that weren’t at the testing center yet a few times. Filling out the testing form in advance is extremely important to ensure you are able to take the exam on schedule. I try to fill out the form a week before the test date.  For more information on my test accommodations, check out this post.

Scheduling tests

Keep your eyesight and energy level in mind when scheduling an exam day and time. No matter what time my class meets, I try to schedule my exams for first thing in the morning when my eyes are well rested and I am less likely to have a migraine. I also try to schedule the exams the same day the rest of the class is testing, or earlier if that isn’t possible. None of my professors have ever complained about me taking an exam early.

Make sure the testing environment is free of distractions or triggers

Even if you are testing in the disability testing center, there can still be distractions. Before taking an exam, I check for flickering lights, loud noises, and if I am testing in my own room, I make sure there is enough room to walk around if my legs start to spasm. Another thing to check for is air fresheners- this semester, I came down with a migraine halfway through my exam and couldn’t figure out why, and it turned out there was a bowl of coffee beans next to where I was taking an exam, and coffee is one of my migraine triggers, so sitting next to a bowl of them wasn’t very smart.

Celebrate after exams!

Plan something fun for after exams are finished- preferably something that won’t aggravate existing fatigue. Some things I’ve done include dinner at one of my favorite restaurants, a day trip to D.C. or Maryland, going to the movies, or simply spending time with friends.

UPDATE– Do not go out to eat with friends the night before your last exam, even if you have been to the restaurant many times.  I had the honor of taking a midterm with food poisoning, and I wish that experience upon no one.

 
Exam week can be hard on anyone, but it’s especially difficult for people with chronic illness or other disabilities. I wish you all good health days and good grades for your exams!

Accommodations For Print Materials

Welcome to Print Disability Week, where I will be posting once a day about ways to receive services for a print disability, with a webinar on Thursday in collaboration with AIM-VA, an accessible educational materials provider for students with print disabilities in grades K-12 in Virginia. Today, I will be talking about how I requested print materials in my high school classrooms.

As a student with low vision who attended public school, I have learned a lot about how to make print and digital materials accessible for me. Here is how I requested print materials for different classes that I took in the classroom. I will have more in depth posts for each subject, as well as my virtual classes, on the blog at some point.

English

22 point bold Arial font, on 8.5 x 11 paper in either light blue or light yellow. Graphics were never much of an issue here, normally I would request high resolution digital files if they were necessary. I received books through Bookshare and Barnes and Noble.

Geography

22 point bold Arial font, on 11 x 17 off white paper. Maps were outlined in black Sharpie and the symbols were enlarged 500%. I received high resolution graphics on my laptop as well as on the class projector. My teacher found that the larger format benefitted all students, and a handful of students even discovered they needed glasses. This class did not use textbooks.

Spanish/foreign language

22 point bold Arial font on 8.5 x 11 blue/yellow paper. Accent marks were outlined in black Sharpie. Pictures were often eliminated, and occasionally there would be alt text available. I received textbooks and workbooks through AIM-VA.

Math

22 point bold Arial font on 11 x 17 blue/yellow paper. I had a specific accommodation to use Sharpie pens instead of pencils. Graphs were either presented as high resolution images or outlined in black Sharpie. I received textbooks from AIM-VA.

Science

22 point bold Arial font on 11 x 17 blue paper. Graphs and images were presented digitally. I also was always partnered with a friend I had known for a long time when it came to labs, since they were used to me having low vision and could make sure I didn’t burn the school down or break items. I received textbooks through AIM-VA and Amazon.

Band

Music enlarged 250%-300% on 11 x 17 off white paper that was cut into segments for easier page turns. Dynamics and other markings were highlighted with black Sharpie. I also received music digitally that my director scanned in. I read it on my iPad and simply zoomed in on the images while playing.

Requesting Extracurricular Accommodations

I’ve never had much of a problem with students telling me that I can’t be a part of a club or organization, because they see me as a person who can actively participate and contribute to the group. However, there have been many adult leaders who have worried about how the group as a whole would be perceived if there was a student with a disability in it- they saw me as a disability. I’ve been told my large print book might stick out from the other books, my blindness cane would make me appear to be helpless, and that my sensitivity to flashing lights was super inconvenient for them. Luckily, I have been able to make many friends through these activities that help me in different clubs. Here are some ways I have been able to encourage inclusion in extracurricular activities.

Explain things as simply as possible

No need to go into detail about diagnoses here. Explain your disability as it applies to receiving accommodations. For example, I tell people that I have issues reading small font and require size 22 font and equivalent picture size on materials. I also mention I have a case with the Department of Blind and Visually Impaired, so that way no one tries to argue with me if my low vision actually exists.

Talk to students in the group

When I was in a play my freshman year of high school, I was surrounded by cast members I had known since elementary and middle school, or that were in band as well. Because of this, no one ever really acknowledged I had a vision impairment, because they were so used to me needing large print or running into objects. Encourage members of the group to ask you questions if need be, but don’t worry about bringing up your disability every thirty seconds. I’ve found that students tend to be more accepting of people with disabilities than adults are.

Avoiding flashing lights

Flashing lights are a migraine trigger for me, and it’s impossible to shut out all flashing lights in the world. In a music ensemble I’m in, I wear very dark sunglasses and a wide brimmed hat to block out most of the flashing lights, and tend to keep my eyes closed when not playing. In other ensembles I’ve been in, the director would request the audience to avoid flash photography for the duration of the performance. Some directors would even tell the audience it was a migraine or seizure trigger. Chances are, you aren’t the only one who is sensitive to flashing lights, so it shouldn’t be a problem to request that they be limited.

Isolation is not the answer

A leader of a group decided that my disability was inconvenient to the other students, and moved me so that I was all by myself while everyone else was allowed to talk with others. As a result, a lot of students thought I was “the weird blind girl” and I had lots of difficulty making friends because people thought there was some deep reason as to why I was stuck alone. This problem was solved when a group of students noticed I had been outcast and asked me to join them. They didn’t mind that I needed large print or had trouble navigating. After that, I became much happier and felt more like a valued member of said group.  If a leader is concerned about having a student with a disability, schedule a meeting where other staff members and students will be present so they can address their concerns.

Remember your rights

You have the right to be able to see, and to receive accessible materials. Do not let anyone say that the large print is too distracting or that they don’t think you need it, or that they don’t feel like providing it. It’s discrimination, after all, if they don’t let you be a part of a group because of your disability.

I have made many of my closest friends through extracurricular activities, and am grateful for the many things I have learned. With these tips, hopefully you will be able to succeed in whatever clubs interest you.